Hire a University of Houston Ph.D.
R. Lucas Williams PhD (2016 expected)
Dissertation Title: Three Essays On Legislative Behavior In American Legislatures
Dissertation Committee: Jennifer H. Clark (chair), Justin H. Kirkland, Jason P. Casellas, and Keith E. Hamm
His dissertation examines legislative behavior from three perspectives. The first paper develops and tests a theory explaining how income inequality leads legislators to become more consistent in their roll-call behavior. He finds that as income inequality increases in a legislators' district, political clout (e.g., electoral resources) becomes concentrated among fewer constituents. As a result, legislators need to satisfy fewer preferences and therefore are more consistent in their chamber votes. The second paper designs a measurement of procedural knowledge using a field survey of state legislators and explores possible explanations for variation in legislators' proficiency of their chamber rules. The third paper investigates the effect non-partisan chambers have on the behavior of their memberships. Scholars know a great deal about how parties discipline their members, but they know little about how legislators behave in an environment absent parties. Williams explores how Progressive Era anti-party reform efforts in Minnesota provide a unique opportunity to examine such a circumstance via natural experiment. He collects an original data set of roll-call votes from the Minnesota State Legislature in early 1900s when parties were unexpectedly banned. Additionally, he furnishes a historical account of this event that supports the sudden nature of the banishment of parties in order to provide context for the analysis. Each of these inquires into legislative behavior generate novel ways to think about the work legislators do and the factors that influence how they pursue individual goals.
Paula Cecilia Pineda PhD (2016 expected)
Dissertation Title: Deconstructed Decentralization and Ethnic Conflict: The Impact of Political, Fiscal, and Administrative Decentralization
Dissertation Committee: Ryan Kennedy (chair), Tanya Bagashka, Patrick Shea, Kristin Bakke
This dissertation addresses the divided, inchoate understanding of the role that decentralization can play in ethnic conflict. First, I highlight inconsistencies in the conceptualization of decentralization, which is traditionally bounded to the concept of federalism. To this end, I present the Deconstructed Decentralization Model (DDM), which features political, fiscal, and administrative spheres of decentralization.
My empirical models demonstrate that different types of decentralization are associated with different impacts on ethnic conflict. For example, I find that the local level in the administration sphere functions as a vessel for higher representation and reduces ethnic conflict levels. Importantly, this impact is consistent across low, mid, and high levels of democracy within states. The dissertation also includes a case study of these dynamics in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and concludes with direct policy implications for the increasingly salient ethnic conflict reality.
Rodrigo Nunez-Donoso PhD (2016 expected)
Dissertation Title: Are Ethnically Heterogeneous Cities More Democratic? Explaining the Sub-National Component of Consociationalism in Post-Conflict Countries
Dissertation Committee: Eduardo Aleman (Co-Chair), Tanya Bagashka (Co-Chair), Jim Granato, Sam Whitt
His dissertation investigates the dynamics of sub-national democratization in post-conflict countries, taking into account the role of ethnic heterogeneity at the local (municipal) and individual levels. He argues that ethnic diversity at the local level is associated with greater levels of electoral competitiveness, and favours de de-ethnification of political contestation by increasing the electoral vote share of multiethnic parties when economic factors are positive. The shift from national level to the subnational one intends to analyze the institutional and behavioral aspects that are usually overlooked in the literature of power-sharing, post conflict democratization. He uses the critical case of Bosnia and Herzegovina (where he has conducted field research) to test the implications of this theory. Bosnia, a case dominated by journalistic descriptions emphasizing protracted ethnic grievances signifies a hard empirical test for his theory.
Yeaji Kim PhD (2016 expected)
Dissertation Title: The Role of Education in Democratization: New Perspectives
Dissertation Committee: Eduardo Aleman (chair), Pablo Pinto, Justin Kirkland, David Campbell
Her dissertation explores how education stimulates democratic values and political participation, as well as the policy implications of these effects on the possibility of authoritarian reversal and democratic consolidation.
The first chapter assesses conditions under which states experience authoritarian reversal or democratic consolidation cross-nationally. She argues that increasing educational attainment decreases the likelihood of authoritarian reversal and promotes the survival of democracy. In particular, this outcome is more prevalent in the developing countries than in developed countries. Her second dissertation chapter argues that education has a positive influence on citizens' democratic values and tolerance, regardless of regime type. For example, previous research asserts that people who were educated and socialized under authoritarian regimes are less likely to be democratic. However, in an analysis of Mexican public opinion data, she finds that education promotes democratic values regardless of regime type. Even individuals who were educated under the pre-2000 Mexican authoritarian regime are more likely to support democracy when they are more educated. The third chapter investigates the effect of college attendance on political engagement in Republic of Korea. Yeaji brings debates in the American context to the Korean case by examining whether college attendance leads to increased political participation. These empirical models demonstrate the role education plays in people's attitudes and behaviors. She concludes by discussing the policy implications for strengthening democratic values as well as political participation via schooling.
Luai Allarakia PhD (2016 expected)
Dissertation Title: The Dynamics of Legislatures in Popular Rentier Monarchies: Kuwait’s Majlis Al-Ummah
Dissertation Committee: Ryan Kennedy (chair), Eduardo Aleman, Justin H. Kirkland, Francisco Cantu, Michael Herb
Luai’s dissertation explores the dynamics of legislatures in authoritarian regimes; specifically, he examines the monarchical regime type, which is often understudied in the literature on authoritarianism. He delves into the dynamics of Kuwait’s National Assembly (Majlis Al-Ummah, KMU) by utilizing an original data set of roll call votes spanning the period of 2006 to 2012, using Pool and Rosenthal’s Scaling Methods. The aim is to unveil the dynamics of conflict in Kuwait’s political system and how they affect the stability of the country, especially as it pertains to the relationship between the unelected hereditary executive and the elected national assembly. He finds that while most studies of institutions and legislatures in authoritarian regimes study them as either conduits of co-optation and regime survival, or liberalization, the Kuwaiti example provides a third understudied outcome: terminal executive-legislative deadlock.