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C. "Chip" Raymond Knee, Ph.D.

C. Raymond Knee, Ph.D.

Professor and Department Chair
Director of the Self, Motivation, and Relationship Theories (SMaRT) Lab
Social, Personality, & Health Psychology
Ph.D., University of Rochester
B.S., Oregon State University

Heyne Building, Room 128C

Biographical Summary

Dr. Knee studies close relationships and interpersonal processes from a motivation perspective that incorporates personality, developmental, and situational influences on optimal individual and relational health. Google Scholar Page

Research Interests

  • Implicit theories of relationships are specific beliefs that people bring with them into their relationships. Destiny belief concerns the stability of one's impressions about relationships. Growth belief concerns the stability of problems in relationships. These beliefs help guide how people perceive, initiate, and maintain romantic relationships
  • Self-determination, or autonomy, in romantic relationships refers to fully endorsing one's own involvement rather than feeling coerced, guilty, or not knowing why one is in the relationship. One's degree of self-determination and autonomous investment has a great deal to do with how people approach and manage conflict in romantic relationships
  • Relationship-contingent self-esteem is self-esteem that depends on one's relationship, and reflects a particular kind of unhealthy relationship investment. When one's self-regard is hooked on one's relationship, one is strongly influenced by relationship events and outcomes because of the implications those events have for the self


  • History and Theories of Social Psychology (graduate)
  • Human Motivation (graduate)
  • Human Motivation (undergraduate honors)
  • Professional Development (graduate)
  • Persuasion and Behavior (undergraduate honors)

Selected Publications

*one of my current or former Ph.D. students

Kluwer, E.S., Karremans, J.C., Riedijk, L., Knee, C.R. (2020). Autonomy in relatedness: How need fulfillment interacts in close relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 46, 603-616. DOI: 10.1177/0146167219867964 

*Baker, Z. G., *Watlington, E. M., & Knee, C. R. (2020). The role of rapport in satisfying one’s basic psychological needs. Motivation and Emotion. 

*LeRoy, A.S., Knee, C.R., Derrick, J.L., & Fagundes, C.P. (2019). Implications for reward processing in differential responses to loss: Impacts on attachment hierarchy reorganization. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 23(4), 391-405. 

*Wong, C. C. Y., Knee. C. R., *Neighbors, C., Zvolensky, M. J. (2019). Hacking stigma by loving         yourself: A mediated moderation model of self-compassion and stigma. Mindfulness, 10(3), 415-433.  

Mattingly, B. A., McIntyre, K. P., Knee, C. R., & Loving, T. J. (2019). Implicit theories of relationships and self-expansion: Implications for relationship functioning. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 36(6), 1579-1599. 

*Hadden, B. W., *Baker, Z. G., & Knee, C. R. (2018). Let it go: Autonomy predicts pro-relationship responses to partner transgressions. Journal of Personality. 86 (5), 868-887.  

*Baker, Z. G., *Tou, R. Y. W., *Bryan, J. L., & Knee, C. R. (2017). Authenticity and well-being: Exploring positivity and negativity in interactions as a mediator. Personality and Individual Differences, 113, 235-239.

Weinstein, N., *Rodriguez, L. M., Knee, C. R., & Kumashiro, M. (2016). Self-determined self-other overlap: Interacting effects on partners’ perceptions of support and well-being in close relationships. Journal of Research in Personality, 65, 130-139.

*Hadden, B. W., *Rodriguez, L. M., Knee, C. R., DiBello, A. M., *Baker, Z. G., & (2016). An actor-partner interdependence model of attachment and need fulfillment in romantic dyads. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7, 349-357.

*Rodriguez, L. M., Øverup, C. S., *Wickham, R. E., Knee, C. R., & *Amspoker, A. B. (2016). Communication with former romantic partners and current relationship outcomes. Personal Relationships, 23, 409-424.
doi: 10.1111/pere.12133

*Hadden, B. W., Knee, C. R., DiBello, A. M., & *Rodriguez, L. M. (2015). High alternatives, low investments, no problem: A motivation perspective on the investment model. Motivation Science, 4, 244-261.

*Hadden, B. W., *Rodriguez, L. M., Knee, C. R., & *Porter, B. W. (2015). Relationship autonomy and support provision in romantic relationships. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 359-373.
doi: 10.1007/s11031-014-9455-9

*Hadden, B. W. & Knee, C. R. (2015). Who am I in it for? Interpersonal goals and secure base support. Self and Identity, 14, 675-691.
doi: 10.1080/15298868.2015.1062796

*Rodriguez, L. M., *Hadden, B. W., & Knee, C. R. (2015). Not all ideals are equal: Intrinsic and extrinsic ideals in relationships. Personal Relationships, 22, 138-152.
doi: 10.1111/pere.12068