## Larry Wright:

The function of A in C is B =

• (i) A is there because it does B;
• (ii) B is a consequence of A's being there.

## Andrew Woodfield:

C does A in order to do B =

• (i) C does A because A entails (causes) B;
• (ii) B is good.

## Aristotle:

A belongs to C because of (for the sake of) B just in case there is a syllogism demonstrating the connection which meets the following criteria:

• (i) It is a proper scientific syllogism;
• (ii) Its minor premise asserts that B is a kath'hauto good for C; &
• (iii) Its major premise asserts that A is a kath'hauto means to B.

(ii) is like Woodfield's (ii) and (iii) is like Woodfield's (i).

So we get this sort of syllogism to explain "Why does C have A?" Answer, C is A for the sake of final cause B:

(i) All B's are A's. (Where A is a kath'hauto means to B.) (ii) All C's are B's. (Where B is a kath'hauto good for C.) (iii) All C's are A's.

## Examples:

### Post An. II, 11 (revised)

• (i) All promoters of good digestion are after-supper walkers;
• (ii) All Spartans are promoters of good digestion;
• (iii) All Spartans are after-supper walkers.

### Parts of Animals. III, 2

• (i) All animals needing mobility and range in self-defense are equipped with horns on their heads.
• (ii) All bulls are animals needing mobilty and range in self-defense.
• (iii) All bulls have horns on their heads.

### Parts of Animals. IV, 10

• (i) All intelligent manipulators of tools have hands;
• (ii) All humans are intelligent manipulators of tools;
• (iii) All humans have hands.