PHYSICS 1305

EXAM 1

Dr. Pinsky

Fall 1996

FORM 1

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There may be more than one correct answer to each question or there may be NO correct answers. Mark all correct answers on the answer sheet. You will be graded RIGHT MINUS WRONG, answer by answer, not question by question! (i.e., You will receive one point for each correct answer marked and have one subtracted from your score for each incorrect answer marked. You will receive neither penalty nor bonus for any answer left blank.) DO NOT GUESS!!!!!

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1. First introduced a modified base 60 number system, some of whose artifacts are still with us today:

 

a) the Sumerians b) the Babylonians

c) the ancient (pre-1000 BC) Egyptians d) the Greeks

e) the Romans

 

 

2. Employed a 10-day week

 

a) the Sumerians b) the Babylonians

c) the ancient (pre-1000 BC) Egyptians d) the Greeks

e) the Romans

 

 

3. Introduced the 24-hour day we still use

 

a) the Sumerians b) the Babylonians

c) the ancient (pre-1000 BC) Egyptians d) the Greeks

e) the Romans

 

 

4. Gave us the Leap Year

 

a) the Sumerians b) the Babylonians

c) the ancient (pre-1000 BC) Egyptians d) the Greeks

e) the Romans

 

 

5. Aristotle

 

a) was the innovator who founded the first precursor of our present universities

b) demonstrated how "easy" it is to make money by controlling olive presses

c) is generally considered the greatest observational astronomer of antiquity

d) is not really a Greek

e) was the student of Alexander the Great..

 

6. Thales

 

a) founded a well-known school (similar in form to our present universities)

b) demonstrated how "easy" it is to make money by controlling olive presses

c) is generally considered the greatest observational astronomer of antiquity

d) is not a Greek

e) introduced the concept of objective reality into western philosophy

 

7. Plato

 

a) founded a well-known school (similar in form to our present universities)

b) was famous for demonstrated how "easy" it is to make money by controlling olive presses.

c) believed in a empirical approach to science.

d) lived in what is today Egypt.

e) organized and classified the sciences as we know them today.

 

 

8. Hipparchus

 

a) had a teacher who first introduced the concept of a vacuum (empty space)

b) first suggested the earth rotated on its axis

c) was the first person to obtain a measurement of the earth's diameter

d) discovered the precession of the earth's axis of rotation

e) the first known person to appreciate the vast distance to the stars

 

 

9. Democritus

 

a) founded a well-known school (similar in form to our present universities)

b) along with his teacher, is credited with introducing the concept of a vacuum.

c) was best known as an observational astronomer

d) lived after Thales

e) made careful measurements of the earth's diameter

 

 

10. Pythagoras

 

a) founded a well-known school (of thought—in the philosophical sense)

b) or one of his followers discovered the existence of irrational numbers

c) is generally considered to be the founder of mathematics and philosophy in the modern sense

d) was actually not a Greek

e) believed in a heliocentric universe

 

11. Aristarchus

 

a) measured the diameter of the earth

b) was the first known person to seriously argue for a heliocentric universe

c) is generally considered the greatest observational astronomer of antiquity

d) was an egyptian astronomer

e) was the student of Plato

 

12. Eratosthenes

 

a) measured the diameter of the earth

b) was the first known person to seriously argue for a heliocentric universe

c) is generally considered the greatest observational astronomer of antiquity

d) was an egyptian astronomer

e) was the student of Plato

 

13. Based on Copernicus' arguments one can conclude that:

 

a) Mercury is closer to the sun than Venus

b) gravity is an inverse square law force

c) the sidereal periods of all planets are distinct from their synodic periods

d) Venus can never be on or above the horizon at midnight.

e) Neptune is now the most distant planet from the sun

 

 

14. Galileo:

 

a) discovered the law of inertia

b) saw the crescent phases of Mars through his telescope

c) found the 4 brightest moons of Jupiter

d) worked with Kepler on his laws

e) was the father of the modern scientific method

 

 

15. Kepler's Laws include or imply:

 

a) an object orbiting our sun with a period of less than one year may still possibly cross the earth's orbit

b) gravity must vary as the inverse square of the distance

c) Planetary orbits could never cross one and other

d) the areas enclosed within all planetary orbits are equal

e) superior planets have greater orbital periods than inferior planets

 

16. Newton's Laws of Motion include or imply:

 

a) gravitation is universal

b) for the fundamental laws of physics to hold, one must view events from an accelerating coordinate system

c) momentum is conserved

d) angular momentum is conserved

e) energy is conserved

 

17. The precession of the equinoxes (i.e. of the earth's axis)

 

a) were first fully explained by Newton

b) is principally caused by the torque on the earth from the planets

c) was known to Ptolemy

d) has a period of about 26,000 years

e) has only unobservable consequences

 

 

18. If a star on your celestial meridian 25° S of your zenith is known to have a declination of 20° N and a right ascension of 6 h 00 m when the universal sidereal time is also 6 h 00 m then:

 

a) you are in the northern hemisphere

b) you are on the international date line

c) you could not be in the United States

d) you could be in Europe

e) it must be close to local midnight

 

19. Mark the true statements:

 

a) If my zenith is the North Celestial Pole, then the South Celestial Pole must be my nadir.

b) If my Celestial Horizon and celestial equator coincide exactly, I must be at the one of the two Celestial Poles.

c) The Vernal Equinox is visible in the night sky in the now (tonight from Houston assuming it is clear enough).

d) The whole planet shares (very close to) 12 h of daylight only at the equinoxes.

e) A minimum total fraction of the Northern Hemisphere is in sunlight on the winter solstice (~Dec. 21) as compared to other times of the year.

 

20. Our Calendar:

 

a) requires the year 2000 to be a common year

b) derives its origin from the Roman Republican calendar

c) is the only calendar that has ever been used

d) February was shortened to "fatten-up" July and August

e) has 12 months because of the length of the lunar synodic period

 

21. If an object of mass 3 Kg moving with a velocity of 1 m/sec southwards collides with another object of mass 1 Kg moving with a velocity of 4 m/sec northwards, sticking together in the process; after the collision the combined object:

 

a) has a mass of 7 kg

b) moves southwards

c) moves northwards

d) is stationary

e) cannot have any eastwards or westwards motion after the collision

 

 

22. If a hypothetical planet in our solar system has exactly 8 times the mass, radius, and orbital period as does the earth, and its orbit is a circle; it's:

 

a) orbit could not possibly cross the earth's

b) surface gravity would be one eighth times that of the earth's

c) orbital radius would be 4 times that of the earth's

d) sidereal period would be 8 years

e) orbital speed would be about half that of the earth's

 

23. Mark the true statements:

 

a) On any given day, the length of a sidereal day is shorter than the solar day.

b) The synodic periods for all planets as seen from the earth is shorter than their sidereal periods.

c) The sun appears to move due eastward in the sky against the background stars as seen from earth (as opposed to northeastward or southeastward) only at the solstices.

d) Christmas occurs in July in Australia.

e) It is possible to travel from tokyo to Houston taking 24 hours enroute, but to arrive in Houston at the same date and time as you left Tokyo.

 

24. By observing the aberration of starlight we can prove:

 

a) we are moving with respect to the stars

b) the earth is rotating on its axis

c) the solstices are more common than equinoxes

d) the earth is revolving about the sun

e) the winter is colder than the summer

 

25. Tides on the earth:

 

a) are caused by fluctuations in the earth's own gravitational field

b) are caused principally by the sun although the moon and planets contribute smaller effects

c) are caused by differences in the effect of external gravitational forces across the earth

d) only occur both for the ocean and the land

e) are highest when the moon is new

 

 

26. Today (now at the time of this test . . . )

 

a) at the north pole the center of the sun is below the horizon all day

b) daytime (sunrise to sunset in Houston) is less than 12 hours

c) the equator has less average daylight time than at any other time of the year

d) the sun is moving southeastwards in the sky daily

e) the north pole is tipped generally forward in the direction of our motion around the sun and slightly away from the sun