The function of A in C is B =
- (i) A is there because it does B;
- (ii) B is a consequence of A's being there.
C does A in order to do B =
- (i) C does A because A entails (causes) B;
- (ii) B is good.
A belongs to C because of (for the sake of) B just in case there is a syllogism demonstrating the connection which meets the following criteria:
- (i) It is a proper scientific syllogism;
- (ii) Its minor premise asserts that B is a kath'hauto good for C; &
- (iii) Its major premise asserts that A is a kath'hauto means to B.
(ii) is like Woodfield's (ii) and (iii) is like Woodfield's (i).
So we get this sort of syllogism to explain "Why does C have A?" Answer, C is A for the sake of final cause B:
(i) All B's are A's. (Where A is a kath'hauto means to B.) (ii) All C's are B's. (Where B is a kath'hauto good for C.) (iii) All C's are A's.
Post An. II, 11 (revised)
- (i) All promoters of good digestion are after-supper walkers;
- (ii) All Spartans are promoters of good digestion;
- (iii) All Spartans are after-supper walkers.
Parts of Animals. III, 2
- (i) All animals needing mobility and range in self-defense are equipped with horns on their heads.
- (ii) All bulls are animals needing mobilty and range in self-defense.
- (iii) All bulls have horns on their heads.
Parts of Animals. IV, 10
- (i) All intelligent manipulators of tools have hands;
- (ii) All humans are intelligent manipulators of tools;
- (iii) All humans have hands.
Ancient Science Main Page