About this unit


Students often have problems with the organization of their ideas even when writing in their first language. These problems are then amplified in learnersí second language writing. This unit aims to raise ESL studentsí awareness of cohesion and cohesive devices within an essay, which consequently would improve cohesion in their writing projects.


What is cohesion?


Cohesion is the glue that keeps a piece of writing together. It relates to the flow of sentences and paragraphs from one to another and involves the tying together of old information and new. The ideas linked together smoothly clarify for readers the relationships among ideas in a piece of writing. Therefore, when sentences, ideas, and details fit together clearly, readers can follow along easily, and the writing is coherent.


To achieve cohesion, you should use verb tenses consistently and connect the parts of your essay logically by repetition of key words and sentence structures, by the judicious use of pronouns and synonyms, and by the effective placement of transitional words and phrases.




The structure of this site

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Make a complete sentence Be consistent in verb tense Establish lexical connection between sentences

Step 4

Step 5


Step 6

 Use transitional devices to connect your sentences Work on a follow-up activity  Review teacher and student resources