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GUIDELINES This site allows non-lexicographers to aid the specialists in elaborating the history of English words and names.

Non-lexicographers provide the raw data and why the example may be relevant: words with links to the AALT with the apparent relevant entry in the OED [www.oed.com], along with as much more information as they are willing to give. The necessary elements are WORD, DATE, QUOTATION, OED entry referenced and relation to that entry, DOCUMENT link, county margination, and series. You may include also the Middle English form or Anglo-Norman form if you want. This entry is just raw data and NOT a statement that the word is properly identified.

TEMPLATE (In edit mode, copy and paste the template; delete elements not included, write over necessary elements):

Bugle (OED bugle, MED bugle, AND bugle): 1318. KB27. Surrey. tria cornua, que vocantur bugles. Early use by OED, could be French. [1]

Lexicographers and similar specialists may assess the raw data using the format of bullet points beneath the raw data entry. The raw data may be added to or edited, but not completely removed. Raw data that was misidentified should remain to assist others who want to enter data. The lexicographical assessment bullets should confirm the identification or supply a different identification and indicate whether the word is too common (“No more needed”), only earlier examples are desirable (“Only earlier needed”) or any further examples are desirable (“More needed”). If the material is carried over to a dictionary, that should likewise be indicated. Disagreement with the assessment can be indicated in a second bullet etc.


  • Proper identification. More needed.

You are encouraged to provide more information from the Middle English Dictionary [2], the Anglo-Norman Dictionary [www.anglo-norman.net], P.H. Reaney and R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames ed. 3 (1991), G. Fransson, Middle English Surnames of Occupation 1100-1350 (1935), or B. Thuresson, Middle English Occupational Terms (1950).


Packer: 1344. Lincolnshire. Rogerum de Garmeleston packer. OED has earliest 1450. [3] rcp

Packesadel: 1347. Huntingdonshire. bona et catalla sua videlicet unum packesadel. OED has earliest 1398. [4] rcp 02/12

Palfreyour: 1319. Willelmus Thequenesmaisterpalfryour. Not found in OED, although palfrey and palfreyman are. [5]; palfreur: Walterum le Palfreur: [6]

Paltokmakere: 1357. interfecit quendam Thomam Paltokmakere. OED has earliest 1376. [7]. 1360. London. Willelmum Cornewaille paltokmakere. [8] rcp 10/12. 1363. London. Johanne Hunte paltokmakere. [9] rcp 04/13.

Panade: 1360. London. cum quodam cultello vocato panade. OED has only earlier in 1340. [10] rcp 03/13

Panetrie: 1319. Willelmum de la Panetrie de Bannebury. OED has earliest 1325. [11]

Panyere: 1342. Staffordshire. Henricum filium Thome le Panyere. [12] rcp 11/12

Parchmyner: 1322. Oxfordshire. William Frere de Oxon' parchemyner [13] SJ ; 1344. Oxfordshire. Roberto Prentys de Bannebury parchemyner. OED does not have. [14]; 1345. Suffolk. quendam Johannem vocatum Jolyfe Jacke parchemyner. [15] rcp 03/12 ; 1362 William Butteram of Lincoln, parcheminer [16] SB

Pardoner: 1343. Cornwall. Willelmum Pardoner. [17] 1353. Bedfordshire. Johannes Pardoner. OED has earliest 1387. [18] rcp 09/12

Partlett: 1530. Kent. unun collitegium muliebre vocatum a partlette de panno vocato sypers circumposito cum diversis margaritis. OED has earliest 1515 and 1528. [19] rcp 02/12

Patynmaker: 1463. Norfolk. Henricum Baxter ...patynmaker. [20] rcp 02/12

Pedelere: 1343. Warwickshire. Johannem le Walkere pedelere. OED has only early in 1307. [21] rcp 11/12

Peleter: 1319. Willelmus le Peleter. OED has earliest 1332. [22]

Pelter: 1319. Johannem le Pelter. OED had earliest 1332. [23]

Penderere: 1345. Rogerus atte Brome de Loundres, penderere. Not found in OED. [24] rcp 03/12

Pewterer: 1350. ad respondendum Ricardo de Wycheford peauterer. OED first use is 1348. [25]. rcp/02.2012

Pichermaker: 1345. Cornwall. Stephanus Pichemaker (from later stage: Pichermaker) de Bodminia. OED does not have; only earlier example of "pitcher" is from 1300. [26], [27] rcp 03/12

Pykeman: 1347. Essex. Johannem Pykeman et Willelmum Pykard. OED has only a single reference, in 1259. [28] rcp 02/12

Pyketstafe: 1345. Bedfordshire. cum quodam baculo vocato piketstafe. OED does not have "pikestaff" before sixteenth century. [29] 1345. Northamptonshire. de quodam baculo ferro picato vocato pykedstaf. [30] rcp 03/12

Pykforkes: 1362. Lincolnshire. vi et armis, scilt., gladiis, cultellis, pykforkes, arcubus. OED has earliest 1364. [31] rcp

Pynner: 1358. Kent. Thome de Salesbury de London' pynner. OED has only earlier in 1281. [32] rcp 11/12

Pyrewynkes: 1343. Yorkshire. super digitos suos imposuerunt quasdam penas vocatas pyrewynkes causa cogendi eum devenire probatorem. OED has earliest 1397. [33] rcp 11/12

Plasterer: 1353. Middlesex. Johannes de Rokyngham de London plasterer. OED has earliest 1440. [34] rcp 09/12

Platemaker: 1356. London. Johanni de Norhampton platemaker. OED does not have the compound. [35] rcp 10/12

Plough chaynes: 1530. Middlesex. tres cathenas de ferre vocatas plough chaynes. OED has earliest 1641. [36] rcp 02/12

Ploughwright: 1361. Leicestershire. Robertum Thruston de Thurmaston ploughwright. OED hes only earlier 1269 and 1285. [37] rcp 03/13

Ploumbour: 1314 Bedfordshire. Alice wife of Richard le Plumer [38] SJ; 1315. John le Plumer of Northampton [39] SB; 1347. Devon. Ricardum le Lange ploumbour. OED has earliest 1385. [40] rcp 03/12 1353. Bucks. Simonem the Plummer. [41] rcp 09/12

Poignaunt: 1360. London. Johannes Poignaunt spicer. OED has earliest 1387, although this may be French. [42] 03/13

Pollax (OED poleaxe): 1319. KB27. Yorkshire. cum quadam hachea vocata pollax percussit. 1347. Kent. cum quodam armo vocato pollex. [43]. OED has earliest 1355 [44]

Polre: 1227. Ralph del Polre adjudged of murder in the 100 of Eastry, Kent. There were a number of variant spellings of this name, but one that occurs most frequently in the late 13th/14th centuries is Poldre.[45]

Porpeys: 1347. Somerset. quemdam piscem vocatum porpeys. OED has a couple earlier references, but unclear, as here, if Anglo-Norman or English. [46] rcp 03/12

Pouchemaker: 1342. London. Robertum de Lincoln pouchemaker. [47]. 1355. London. Nicholaum Gamen de London pouchemaker. OED has earliest 1362. [48] rcp 10/12, also found in T1354 [49] SJ 11/12

Pounced: 1531. London. a rounde hope of golde pounced with perlez. OED has one earlier reference in 1410. [50] rcp 02/12

Procratour: 1314. Yorkshire. Thomas le procratour [51] SJ

Puke: 1463. Lincolnshire. unum parre caligarum de nigro colore vocato puke. OED has earliest, as color, in 1510. [52] rcp

Pulter: 1315 Wiltshire. Robert le Pulter de Nova Sarum [53] SB; 1342. Warwickshire. Johannem de Cnyteherdewyke de Warrweyk pultere. [54]. 1346. Cambridgeshire. Johannes de Bernewell pulter. OED has earliest 1474 and not in this sense. [55] rcp 04/12

Pultry ware: 1530. London. pro omnimodis pultrye ware. OED has earliest 1531-2. [56] rcp 02/12

Pykoys: 1319. unum malleum ferreum, unum gaveloke, sex canillos (?), et unum pykoys, et alia bona et catalla. OED: earliest 1256 (a pick) [57]

Pynder: 1315. Lincolnshire. John son of Henry le Pynder of Burton [58] SB; 1319. Alanum Pynder. [59] OED has earliest 1218; 1315 would be second.