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GUIDELINES This site allows non-lexicographers to aid the specialists in elaborating the history of English words and names.

Non-lexicographers provide the raw data and why the example may be relevant: words with links to the AALT with the apparent relevant entry in the OED [www.oed.com], along with as much more information as they are willing to give. The necessary elements are WORD, DATE, QUOTATION, OED entry referenced and relation to that entry, DOCUMENT link, county margination, and series. You may include also the Middle English form or Anglo-Norman form if you want. This entry is just raw data and NOT a statement that the word is properly identified.

TEMPLATE (In edit mode, copy and paste the template; delete elements not included, write over necessary elements):

Bugle (OED bugle, MED bugle, AND bugle): 1318. KB27. Surrey. tria cornua, que vocantur bugles. Early use by OED, could be French. [1]

Lexicographers and similar specialists may assess the raw data using the format of bullet points beneath the raw data entry. The raw data may be added to or edited, but not completely removed. Raw data that was misidentified should remain to assist others who want to enter data. The lexicographical assessment bullets should confirm the identification or supply a different identification and indicate whether the word is too common (“No more needed”), only earlier examples are desirable (“Only earlier needed”) or any further examples are desirable (“More needed”). If the material is carried over to a dictionary, that should likewise be indicated. Disagreement with the assessment can be indicated in a second bullet etc.


  • Proper identification. More needed.

You are encouraged to provide more information from the Middle English Dictionary [2], the Anglo-Norman Dictionary [www.anglo-norman.net], P.H. Reaney and R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames ed. 3 (1991), G. Fransson, Middle English Surnames of Occupation 1100-1350 (1935), or B. Thuresson, Middle English Occupational Terms (1950).


Bakester: 1354. Trinity. Linc'. John de Lichefeld, bakester . OED: Apparently not used in southern English after 1400 [3] 11/12

Balansmaker:1435. Michaelmas. Surrey. Gerard Jonesson, balansmaker. OED has first reference dated to 1611. [4] SJ

Baleyn: 1342. quendam piscem vocatum Baleyn precij decentarum librarum ... per fluxum maris proiectum. Unclear which meaning this is, but relatively early in any case. [5] rcp 12/12

Baleses: 1463. Middlesex. videlicet diamandis, saphirys, rubeys, balases, turkeyses, amatystas, et emerawdes. Not found in OED. [6] rcp 02/12

Ballett: 1590. London. dimidiam ulne panni linei vocati ballet canvas. OED does not in this sense. [7] rcp 04/12

Balowe staff: 1530. Worcs. cum quodam baculo vocato a balowe staff precii unius denarii. OED has balowe from 1430 but only in comination with fire: balowe-fire. [8] rcp 02/12

Banckroutly: 1590. Middlesex. a raskall, a banckroutly knave, a fugitive. OED does not have. [9] rpc 04/12

Barber: 1314 Robert le Barbour [10], Thomas le Barbour of Oxford [11], William le Barbour of Kenilworth [12]; 1319. Radulphum le Barber. OED earliest English usage is 1330. [13]; Nicholaus le Barbour [14]

Barkere: 1343. Cambridgeshire. Ricardo de Arderne de Cantebrigge barkere, Roberto de Codenham de Cantebrigge barkere, Johanni filio Eiusdem Roberti, Willelmo le Webstere, and Johanni de Cotene barkere. OED has only 1402. [15] rcp 11/12

Baselard: 1352. predictus Galfridus de Wychyngham de quodam anno (sic) vocato Baselard et predictus Thoma de quodam gladio colome. OED has clear history from 1390, a mention from 1349. [16]

Baton: 1590. Norfolk. lez flitches porcini salsi anglice baton ad valenciam decem solidorum. OED has earliest 1658. [17] rcp 04/12

Baven: 1530. Kent. tresdecim carectatas lignorum folcalium vocatorum baven. OED has earliest in 1528 and only as bavin. [18] rcp 02/12

Baystocke: Suffolk. cum largis postibus latisque anglice baystockes. [19] rcp

Beckehorne: uno instrumento fereo anglice a beckehorne ad valenciam octodecim solidorum. OED does not have. [20] rcp 04/12

Bedcloth: 1344. Yorkshire. unius tapeti unius bedcloth. OED has earliest 1387. [21] rcp

Bedstedis: 1530. Hertfordshire. duo lectisernia vocat' Bedstedis. OED earliest is 1440; second use is 1530. [22] rcp 02/12

Belleyeter: 1345. Cornwall. Willelmi le Belleyeter de Bodmminia. OED has earliest 1440. [23] rcp 03/12

Berchere: 1314 Berkshire. Robertus le Berch' [24] SJ; 1345. Sussex. Johannem le Berchere. OED probably does not have. [25] rcp 03/12

Bidowe/Bydowe: 1344. Oxfordshire. de quodam cultello vocato bidowe quem tenuit in manu sua dextera. [26]. 1348. Yorkshire. de quodam cultello vocato Bydowe precii duorum solidorum. [27]. In 1351, Worcestershire, it appears as bedowe: de quodam cultello vocato bedowe. [28]. 1344 Berkshire. de quodam cultello vocato bideu. [29] OED has earliest "Bidowe" in 1362 and only as "a weapon of some kind." rcp 03/12

Bytters: 1530. London. sex duodenas de malardes, sex herons, sex byters, decem et octo snytes, et undecim duodenas de larkes. Apparently some kind of bird. OED does not have. [30] rcp 02/12

Blake: 1344. Middlesex. de eo quod est receptatorum Katerine de Lenne, Isabelle de Ryshton, Cecilie de Cauford, et Agnetis vocate Blak' Anneys, que sunt communes meretrices et receptatrices diversorum hominum infra parochiam sancte Marie atte Stroude. Perhaps early for this kind of usage, depending on what usage it is. [31] rcp 03/12

Blakgray: 1530. Middlesex. unum equum castratum coloris Blakgray. OED does not have. [32] rcp 02/12

Blanket: 1362. London. scarlet blanket. OED has earlier only 1300. [33] rcp 04/13

Blew: 1345. Middlesex. robam de blew precii quinque solidorum. OED has earliest 1400. [34] rcp 03/12

Bokelermakere" 1357. Warwickshire. Ricardus de Oxenford bokelermakere. OED has earliest 1440. [35]

Bourser: 1345. Essex. Johannem Bourser capellanum. OED earliest is sixteenth century. [36] rcp 03/12

Boghyere: 1320. Alanus le Boghyere, Eustachius le Boghyere. Not in OED (unless this is equivalent to bowyer). [37]

Boltyng cyve: 1530. Norfolk. unum sutterniculum vocatum a boltyng cyve. [38] rcp 02/12

Bokebynder: 1342. Kent. Johannes Bokebynder. OED has earliest 1389. [39] rcp 11/12

Botelmaker: 1402. Warwickshire. Peter Rypon. OED has bottler. [40] SJ 10/24/14

Boterye: 1360. Leicestershire. Petrum of the Wode, Robertum oftheboterye. OED has earliest 1389. [41] rcp 03/13

Botiler: 1314. Shropshire. Fulco le Botiler [42] SJ

Botman: 1314 Norfolk. William Caitone of Norwich, botman [43]SJ; 1345. Norfolk. Robertum filium Rogeri atte Lathe botman. OED only earlier example is 1275. [44]

Boure: 1345. Northamptonshire. Ricardus intheboure. OED has earlier examples only before the Conquest. [45] rcp 03/12

Bowyere: 1345. Cambridgeshire. Petro le Bowyere. Only earlier example in OED is 1297. [46] rcp 03/12

Brasiere: 1360. Kent. Egidii le Brasiere. OED has earliest 1440. [47] rcp

Brasyetter: 1354. Wiltshire. Nicholai Brasyetter. OED does not have. [48] rcp 9/12

Brekedaunce: 1345. Somerset. Willelmum Brekedaunce. OED has earliest 1587. [49] rcp 03/12

Brenster: 1346. Northamptonshire. Walterum filium Agnetis le Brenstere. OED does not have. [50]; 1344. Lincolnshire. Willelmus le Brenstre de Croyland. [51] rcp 04/12

Bridesmouth: 1353. Nottinghamshire. Willelmum Bridesmouth. OED does not have. [52] rcp 09/12

Broche:1356. Middlesex. cum quodam cultello vocato broche precii xij denariorum. OED has only earlier in 1305. [53]; 1356. London. Extraxit quendam longum broche. [54] rcp 10/12

Brown: 1530. boves, unum coloris nigri et alium coloris brown brendid. OED has earliest 1607. [55] rcp, 02/12

Bukebynder: 1306. Oxfordshire. William le Bokbyndere, Oxford [56] SJ; 1354. Yorkshire. Adam Bukebynder [57] SJ

Bukmongere: 1346. Norfolk. Johannem filium Willelmi Bukmongere. OED has only in 1661. [58] rcp 04/12

Bureller: 1342. London. Johannes Waryner taverner ... optulit se ... versus Willelmum Stacy de London bureller. OED does not have. [59] rcp 11/12

Burrock: 1221. [a] Worcestershire "Hamo molendinarius inventus fuit submersus in Burroka sua." [b] Gloucestershire "...ivit cum ipse Henr' ad Burroka...." OED 1701 - dictionary word only, but notes may have found its way into actual use [60][61] WJ

Busteler: 1342. Cambridgeshire. Robertus le Busteler miles. OED has earliest 1653. [62] rcp 12/12

Butons: 1361. London. bonis et catallis ... viz., butons, aumails, nouches, margerie perles rubies saffiers diamans et alia jocalia. OED has earliest 1377. [63] rcp 03/13